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PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

UNIT-I: Water, its biological significance, water relationship of the plants, osmosis, permeability, diffusion, chemical potential, water potential, metric potential, pressure potential. A general account of absorption and translocation of water, solutes and assimilates. Transpiration and stomatal mechanism.

UNIT-II: Photosynthesis, organization of thylakoids. Photosynthetic pigments and functions. An outline of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mechanism of photosynthesis-light reaction, the two transport chains. Emersons effect, photophosphorylation, carbon fixation and glycolate metabolism and its significance.

UNIT-III: Respiration-glycolysis, energy conversion stages of glycolysis, metabolism of fats and storage proteins to carbohydrates, regulation of glycolysis, and outline of pentose phosphate path way. Pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, electron transport system coupled with oxidative phosphorylation, inhibitors of electron transport system.

UNIT-IV: Thermodynamics – Laws, enzyme as catalysts – enzyme kinetics, classification, nomenclature, properties and mechanisms of enzyme action. Biomolecules : A concise account of biomolecules-carbohydrates-classification, structure and properties of functional groups. Isomerism (only outline.)

UNIT-V: Aminoacid-structure, classification, properties, isoelectric points and zwitter ions-isomerism. The concept of heterocarbon (only outline) Proteins-classification, properties primary and secondary, tertiary and quaternary, structures (only outline) Lipids-Classification, properties, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, plant waxes and steroids (only outline). PRACTICALS: 1. Determination of osmotic pressure (OP) of cell sap of given specimen (Rheo leaf) 2. Determination of diffusion pressure deficit (DPD) with potato tubers. 3. Effect of light intensity on transpiration. 4. Measurement of respiratory rate in germinating seeds and flower buds using simple respirometer. 5. Rate of photosynthesis under varying CO2 conc. in a water plant. 6. Effect of intensity of light O2 evolution during photosynthesis using Willmot’s bubble counter. 7. Determination of water absorption/transpiration ratio. 8. Measurement of respiration by a simple respirometer or winklers method. 9. Determination of transpiration rate using simple photometer. 10. Calculation of stomatal index of upper and lower epidermal peelings of Moringa. M.Sc. Botany (SDE) 2009-10 Page 14 of 21 11. Effect of pH and temperature on the enzyme activity of the following a) Peroxydase, b) Amylase, c) Catalase. Demonstration experiments: a) Physiology 1. Nitrification in soil. 2. Effect of GA and amylase activity in cereals 3. Effect of IAA and IBA on excised shoot/hypocotyls cuttings of legumes. 4. Hydrolysis of starch by amylase. 5. Demonstration of Hill reaction by isolated chloroplast. 6. Sand/water culture experiments to determine essentiality of minerals 7. Manometric determination of R.Q 8. Effect of ABA on stomatal opening and closing mechanism b) Bio-Chemistry - Practicals 1. pH: operation of pH meter to measure the pH of expressed cell sap and soil solutions. 2. Buffers: preparation of phosphate buffer and citrate buffer 3. Chromatography: I. Paper chromatographic technique to separate sugars, aminoacids, chloroplast pigments II. Thin layer chromatographic technique to separate chloroplast sugars and lipids 4. Determination of absorption spectra of chlorophyll a and b with spectrophotometer. Demonstrations 1. Calorimetric/spectrophotometric estimation of the following biomolecules: ii) total free aminoacids (ninhydrin reagent method) iii) proteins (Biuret and Lowry et al 1951v method) iv) Total soluble carbohydrates (Anthrone reagent method) v) Starch (Clegg’s 1956, method) 3. Demonstration of electrophoresis.

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