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GENETICS, PLANT BREEDING AND BIOSTATISTICS

UNIT-I: Mendals Law of inheritance-interaction of genes, quantitative inheritance, sex determination in plants, theories of sex determination. Sex linked characters-primary, secondary and permanent, non-disjunction of sex chromosomes in Drosophila. Sexes influenced and sex limited characters. Chromosome theory of inheritance. Gene mutation-Detection of mutation CLB Method, Muller 5 method, Biochemical mutants in Bacteria and Neurospora. Detection of mutation in Bacteriophages and higher plants. Molecular basis of mutation, physical and chemical mutagens and their mode of action.

UNIT-II: Multiple alleles and pseudoalleles. Modern concept of genes. Fine structure of the gene IS Element-transposons. Extrachromosomal inheritance, genome of mitochondria and plastids and their role in inheritance. Uniparental inheritance in Chlamydomonas and Paramoecium-Male sterility, Population genetics-gene frequencies, mutation selection, migration, genetic drift, genetics disorder of chromosomal and geneic origin. Regulation of gene expression in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.

UNIT-III: Methods of plant breeding self-fertilized, cross fertilized and vegetatively propagated plants. Breeding plants for improving yield and quality and resistant to diseases and pests. Plant M.Sc. Botany (SDE) 2009-10 Page 5 of 21 breeding work in India with special reference to Rice, cotton and Sugar cane. Role of polyploidy and distant hybridization in plant improvement. Induced mutations in crop improvement.

UNIT-IV: World diminishing plant resources threatened and endangered plants. Red Data Books. Plant germplasm resources-plantation, horticultural and field crops. Medicinal plants-germplasm collection and conservation. Germplasm maintenance of Rice and Sugarcane. The role of IBPGR (Rome, Italy) and NBPGR (New Delhi), in germplasm conservation, patent and intellectual properties-Rights of Plant breeders and Biotechnologists.

UNIT-V: Principle and practice of statistical methods in Biological research. Population and sampling. Data collection & Representation-graph and tabulation. Measures of central tendency-mean (only arithmetic), median and mode. Measures of dispersion-mean, deviation, standard division and standard error. Probability of distribution (binomial, Poisson & normal). Tests of statistical significance-chi-Square test, theories of probabilities. Analysis of variance. PRACTICALS: Solving problems involving 1. Dihybrid cross 2. Interactions of factors 3. Incomplete dominance 4. Chromosome mapping from test cross data. Calculation of interference. 5. Multiple alleles and blood group inheritance 6. Sex linked inheritance 7. Quantitative inheritance 8. Population genetics 9. Calculation of gene frequencies 10. Allelomorphic pair, multiple alleles (classical blood Groups), sex linked alleles 11. Training in hybridization techniques. 12. Hi - square test.

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