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FUNDEMENTALS OF BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS Subject description : Some basic aspects of Molecular Biology and Genetics that are relevant to the course are included in this paper. Goals: To understand the basic structure of cell, mechanism and regulation of biological processes fundamental to genome structure and biochemistry. Objectives: Students completing this paper should be able to understand concepts of molecular biology that are basic to bioinformatics.

UNIT-I Introduction to cells. Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Cell organelles and their functions. Differences and similarities between plant and animal cells. Cell transport across plasma membrane. Mechanisms of transport.

UNIT-II Molecules of life: Introduction to carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids – Different structural forms and functional organizations.

UNIT-III Cell Energetics: Glycolysis, Aerobic oxidation and photosynthesis, Utilization of glucose, fat and protein.

UNIT-IV Enzymes:

Unit of activity, coenzymes and metal cofactors, temperature and pH effects, Michaelis – Menten kinetics, inhibitors and activators, active site and mechanism of enzyme action, Isoenzymes, allosteric enzymes.

UNIT-V Cell Cycle and regulation – Mitosis, Meiosis. DNA as genetic material, DNA replication, Transcription and Translation. Gene regulation.

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