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BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING

UNIT-I: Scope and importance of Biotechnology. Tools of genetic engineering; Enzymes and cloning vectors, Recombinant DNA and gene cloning. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Gene amplification. Isolation, sequencing and synthesis of genes.

UNIT-II: Gene transfer methods in plants. Transgenic plants. Chloroplast and Mitochondrion engineering maps of plant genomes.

UNIT-III: Transfer of nif genes to Eukaryotes, Genetics of Diazotrophs (Nod gene, nif gene cloning and Hup genes). Protein engineering- rationale, assumptions , steps involved, modeling and methods. Production of encapsulated seeds. M.Sc. Botany (SDE) 2009-10 Page 12 of 21

UNIT-IV: Isolation and culturing of microorganisms for the production of organic acid (ethanol), enzyme (Alpha amylase) and antibiotics (penicillin) by microbial fermentation. Biotechnology in paper industry, biohydro- metallurgy and biomineralisation, biofertilizers, bioinsecticides and application of genetically engineered bacteria.

UNIT-V: Current levels of biodiversity, alpha () and beta () biodiversity, extinction and endangered species, steps to preserve biodiversity, in situ and ex situ conservation- gene banks, species conservation. Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Intellectual Property Protection (IPP) and patenting of biological material. PRACTICALS: 1. Demonstration of techniques of in vitro culture of various explants. 2. Isolation in plant protoplasts (e.g. Tobacco, Petunia) using enzyme available commercially and estimation of their yield and viability. 3. Isolation of plant genomic DNA and checking it purity (Onion). 4. Isolation of chloroplast by using column chromatography. 5. Isolation of plasmid from microbes. 6. Production of ethanol using microbes. 7. Biodegradation of paper and bulb industry effluent. 8. Absorption of metals by using microbes. 9. Culture and isolation of chemical fertilizers and pesticides removal using microbes.

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