Number System and Binary Codes: Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal – Binary
addition, Multiplication, Division – Floating point representation, Complements, BCD,
Excess3, Gray Code.
Arithmetic Circuits: Half adder, Full adder, Parallel binary adder, BCD adder, Half
subtractor, Full subtractor, Parallel binary subtractor - Digital Logic: the Basic Gates – NOR,
NAND, XOR Gates.
Combinational Logic Circuits: Boolean algebra –Karnaugh map – Canonical form 1 –
Construction and properties – Implicants – Don’t care combinations - Product of sum, Sum
of products, simplifications.
Sequential circuits: Flip-Flops : RS, D, JK, T - Multiplexers – Demultiplexers –
Decoder – Encoder - Counters.
MICROPROCESSOR: Architecture – Bus Organization – Functional diagram and
pin out diagram of 8085 - Addressing modes of 8085 – Instruction set of 8085 – I/O Schemes
– Peripherals and Interfaces.
Input – Output Organization: Input – output interface – I/O Bus and Interface – I/O
Bus Versus Memory Bus – Isolated Versus Memory – Mapped I/O – Example of I/O
Interface. Asynchronous data transfer: Strobe Control and Handshaking – Priority Interrupt:
Daisy-Chaining Priority, Parallel Priority Interrupt. Direct Memory Access: DMA Controller,
DMA Transfer. Input – Output Processor: CPU-IOP Communication.
Memory Organization: Memory Hierarchy – Main Memory- Associative memory:
Hardware Organization, Match Logic, Read Operation, Write Operation. Cache Memory:
Associative, Direct, Set-associative Mapping – Writing Into Cache Initialization. Virtual
Memory: Address Space and Memory Space, Address Mapping Using Pages, Associative
Memory Page Table, Page Replacement.