Unit 1 :
Any two themes from each of the first two sub-units and one from the third could be studied.
Sub-unit 1.1 : Events and processes.
In this unit the focus is on three events and processes that have in major ways shaped the identity
of the modern world. Each represents a different form of politics, and a specific combination of forces. One event is linked to the growth of liberalism and democracy, one with socialism, and one with a negation of both democracy and socialism.
1. French revolution :
(a) The Ancient Regime and its crises. (b) The social forces that led to the revolution. (c)
The different revolutionary groups and ideas of the time. (d) The legacy.
2. Russian Revolution.
(a) The crises of Tzarism. (b) The nature of social movements between 1905 and 1917. (c) The First World War and foundation of Soviet state. (d) The legacy.
3. Rise of Nazism.
(a) The growth of social democracy (b) The crises in Germany. (b) The basis of Hitler's
rise to power. (c) The ideology of Nazism. (d) The impact of Nazism.
Sub-unit 1.2 : Economies and Livelihoods
The themes in this section will focus on how different social groups grapple with the changes in
the contemporary world and how these changes affect their lives.
4. Pastoralists in the modern world.
(a) Pastoralism as a way of life. (b) Different forms of pastoralism. (c) What happens
to pastoralism under colonialism and modern states?
Case studies : focus on two pastoral groups, one from Africa and one from India.
5. Forest society and colonialism :
(a) Relationship between forests and livelihoods. (b) Changes in forest societies under colonialism.
Case studies : focus on two forest movements one in colonial India (Bastar) and one in Indonesia.
6. Farmers and peasants :
a) Histories of the emergence of different forms of farming and peasant societies. (b) Changes within rural economies in the modern world.
Sub-unit 1.3 : Culture, Identity and Society
The themes in this unit will consider how issues of culture are linked up to the making of
7. Sports and politics :
The story of cricket (a) The emergence of cricket as an English sport. (b) Cricket and colonialism. (c) Cricket nationalism and de-colonialization.
8. Clothes and cultures.
(a) A short history of changes in clothing. (b) Debates over clothing in
colonial India. (c) Swadeshi and the movement for Khadi.
Unit 2 :
: location, relief, structure, major
: factors influencing the climate;
monsoon- its characteristics, rainfall and
temperature distribution; seasons; climate and
: major rivers and tributaries, lakes
and seas, role of rivers in the economy, pollution
of rivers, measures to control river pollution.
4. Natural Vegetation
: vegetation types,
distribution as well as altitudinal variation, need
for conservation and various measures.
: major species, their distribution, need
for conservation and various measures.
: size, distribution, age-sex
composition, population change-migration as a
determinant of population change, literacy,
health, occupational structure and national
population policy : adolescents as under-served
population group with special needs.
Learners may identify songs, dances, festivals and special food preparations associated with certain seasons in their particular region, and whether they have some commonality with other regions of India. Collection of material by learners on the flora and fauna of the region in which their school is situated. It should include a list of endangered species of the region and also information regarding efforts being made to save them.
Depletion of forests and ecological imbalance.
Unit - 3 :
1. What is democracy? Why democracy?
What are the different ways of defining democracy? Why has democracy become the
most prevalent form of government in our times? What are the alternatives to democracy? Is
democracy superior to its available alternatives? Must every democracy have the same institutions and values?
2. Designing of Democracy in India
How and why did India become a democracy? How was the Indian constitution framed? What
are the salient features of the Constitution? How is democracy being constantly designed and redesigned in India?
3. Electoral politics in democracy
Why and how do we elect representatives? Why do we have a system of competition among
political parties? How has the citizens’ participation in electoral politics changed? What are the ways to ensure free and fair elections?
4. Institutions of parliamentary democracy
How is the country governed? What does Parliament do in our democracy? What is the role of the President of India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers? How do these relate to one another?
5. Citizens’ rights in democracy
Why do we need rights in a constitution? What are the Fundamental Rights enjoyed by the citizen under the Indian constitution? How does the judiciary protect the Fundamental Rights of the citizen? How is the independence of the judiciary ensured?
Unit - 4 :
1. The economic story of Palampore:
Economic transactions of Palampore and its interaction with the rest of the world through which the concept of production (including three factors of
production (land, labour and capital) can be introduced.
2. People as Resource :
Introduction of how people become resource / asset; economic
activities done by men and women; unpaid work done by women; quality of human resource ;
role of health and education; unemployment as a form of nonutilisation of human resource; sociopolitical implication in simple form
3. Poverty as a challenge facing India :
Who is poor (through two case studies: one rural one
urban); indicators; absolute poverty (not as a concept but through a few simple examples) -
why people are poor ; unequal distribution of resources; comparison between countries; steps
taken by government for poverty alleviation
4. Food Security : Source of foodgrains-
variety across the nation - famines in the past - the need for self sufficiency - role of government in food security - procurement of foodgrains -
overflowing of granaries and people without food - public distribution system - role of cooperatives in food security (foodgrains, milk and vegetables ration shops, cooperative shops, two-three examples as case studies)
Suggested Activities / Instructions :
Theme 1 :
Give more examples of activities done by different workers and farmers.
Numerical problems can also be included. Some of the ways through which description of villages are available in the writings of Prem Chand, MN Srinivas and RK Narayan. They may have to be referred.
: Discuss the impact of unemployment
Debate on whether all the activities done by women should be included or not.
Is begging an economic activity? Discuss.
Is it necessary to reduce population growth or family size? Discuss.
Visit a few farms in a village and collect the details of foodgrains cultivated;
Visit a nearby ration shop and collect the details of goods available;
Visit a regulated market yard and observe how goods are transacted and get the details of the places where the goods come and go.
Unit - 5 :
1. Man made disasters
- Nuclear, Biological and Chemical.
2. Common Hazards
- Prevention and Mitigation
3. Community Based Disaster Management.