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Study 9th STANDARD - Science

Food

Plant and animal breeding and selection for quality improvement and management ; use of fertilizers, manures;protection from pests and diseases; organic farming.



Matter - Nature and behaviour

Definition of matter; solid, liquid and gas; characteristics - shape, volume, density; change of state-melting (absorption of heat), freezing, evaporation (Cooling by evaporation), condensation, sublimation.

Nature of matter : Elements, compounds and mixtures. Heterogenous and homogenous mixtures, colloids and suspensions.

Particle nature, basic units : atoms and molecules. Law of constant proportions. Atomic and molecular masses.

Mole Concept : Relationship of mole to mass of the particles and numbers. Valency. Chemical formula of common compounds.

Structure of atom : Electrons, protons and neutrons; Isotopes and isobars.



Organization in the living world.

Biological Diversity : Diversity of plants and animals - basic issues in scientific naming, basis of classification. Hierarchy of categories / groups, Major groups of plants (salient features) (Bacteria, Thalophyta, Bryo phyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms and Angiosperms). Major groups of animals (salient features) (Non-chordates upto phyla and chordates upto classes).

Cell - Basic Unit of life : Cell as a basic unit of life; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, multicellular organisms; cell membrane and cell wall, cell organelles; chloroplast, mitochondria, vacuoles, ER, golgi apparatus; nucleus, chromosomes - basic structure, number.

Tissues, organs, organ systems, organism. Structure and functions of animal and plant tissues (four types in animals; merismatic and permanent tissues in plants).

Health and diseases : Health and its failure. Infectious and Non-infectious diseases, their causes and manifestation. Diseases caused by microbes (Virus, Bacteria and protozoans) and their prevention, Principles of treatment and prevention. Pulse polio programmes.



Motion, Force and Work

Motion : Distance and displacement, velocity; uniform and non-uniform motion along a straight line; acceleration, distance-time and velocity-time graphs for uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion, equations of motion by graphical method; elementary idea of uniform circular motion.

Force and Newton's laws : Force and motion, Newton's laws of motion, inertia of a body, inertia and mass, momentum, force and acceleration. Elementary idea of conservation of momentum, action and reaction forces.

Gravitation : Gravitation; universal law of gravitation, force of gravitation of the earth (gravity), acceleration due to gravity; mass and weight; free fall.

Floatation : Thrust and pressure. Archimedes' principle, buoyancy, elementary idea of relative density.

Work, Energy and Power : Work done by a force, energy, power; kinetic and potential energy; law of conservation of energy.

Sound : Nature of sound and its propagation in various media, speed of sound, range of hearing in humans; ultrasound; reflection of sound; echo and SONAR. Structure of the human ear (auditory aspect only).



Our Environment

Physical resources : Air, Water, Soil.

Air for respiration, for combustion, for moderating temperatures, movements of air and its role in bringing rains across India. Air, water and soil pollution ( brief introduction). Holes in ozone layer and the probable damages.

Bio-geo chemical cycles in nature : water, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen


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