Maths Course Structure  Class VIII
Number System 


Properties of rational numbers.(including identities). Usinggeneral form of expression to describe properties 

Consolidation of operations on rational numbers. 

Representation of rational numbers on the number line 

Between any two rational numbers there lies another rational number (Making children see that if we take two rational numbers then unlike for whole numbers, in this case you can keep finding more and more numbers that lie between them.) 

Word problem (higher logic, two operations, including ideas like area) 


Integers as exponents. 

Laws of exponents with integral powers 


Square and
Square roots 

Square roots using factor method and division method for numbers containing (a) no more than total 4 digits and (b) no more than 2 decimal places 

Cubes and
cubes roots (only factor method for numbers containing at most 3 digits) 

Estimating square roots and cube roots. Learning the process of moving nearer to the required number. 


Writing and understanding a 2 and 3 digit number in generalized form (100a + 10b + c , where a, b, c can be only digit 09) and engaging with various puzzles concerning this. (Like finding the missing numerals represented by alphabets in sums involving any of the four operations.) Children to solve and create problems and puzzles. 

Number puzzles and games 

Deducing the divisibility test rules of 2, 3, 5, 9, 10 for a two or threedigit number expressed in the general form. 
Algebra 


Multiplication and division of algebraic exp.(Coefficient should be integers) 

Some common errors (e.g. 2 + x ≠ 2x, 7x + y ≠ 7xy ) 

Identities (a ± b)2 = a2 ± 2ab + b2, a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b) Factorisation (simple cases only) as examples the following types a(x + y), (x ± y)2, a2 – b2, (x + a).(x + b) 

Solving linear equations in one variable in contextual problems involving multiplication and division (word problems) (avoid complex coefficient in the equations) 


Slightly advanced problems involving applications on percentages, profit & loss, overhead expenses, Discount,tax. 

Difference between simple and compound interest (compounded yearly up to 3 years or halfyearly up to 3 steps only), Arriving at the formula for compound interest through patterns and using it for simple problems. 

Direct variation – Simple and direct word problems 

Inverse variation – Simple and direct word problems 

Time & work problems– Simple and direct word problems 
Geometry 


Properties of quadrilaterals – Sum of angles of a quadrilateral is equal to 360o (By verification) 

Properties of parallelogram (By verification) 

 Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal,
 Opposite angles of a parallelogram are equal,
 Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. [Why (iv), (v) and (vi) follow from (ii)]
 Diagonals of a rectangle areequal and bisect each other.
 Diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at right angles.
 Diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles.



Identify and Match pictures with objects [more complicated e.g. nested, joint 2D and 3D shapes (not more than 2)]. 

Drawing 2D representation of 3D objects (Continued and extended) 

Counting vertices, edges & faces & verifying Euler’s relation for 3D figures with flat faces (cubes, cuboids, tetrahedrons, prisms and pyramids) 


Construction of Quadrilaterals: 

 Given four sides and one diagonal 

 Three sides and two diagonals 

 Three sides and two included angles 

 Two adjacent sides and three angles 


Area of a trapezium and a
polygon. 

Concept of volume, measurement of volume using a basic unit, volume of a cube, cuboid and cylinder 

Volume and capacity (measurement of capacity) 

Surface
area of a cube,
cuboid,
cylinder. 


Reading
bargraphs, ungrouped data, arranging it into groups, representation of grouped data through bargraphs, constructing and interpreting bargraphs. 

Simple
Pie charts with reasonable data numbers 

Consolidating and generalising the notion of chance in events like tossing coins, dice etc. Relating it to chance in life events. Visual representation of frequency outcomes of repeated throws of the same kind of coins or dice. Throwing a large number of identical dice/coins together and aggregating the result of the throws to get large number of individual events. Observing the aggregating numbers over a large number of repeated events. Comparing with the data for a coin. Observing strings of throws, notion of randomness 

PRELIMINARIES: 

Axes (Same units),
Cartesian Plane 

Plotting points for different kind of situations (perimeter vs length for squares, area as a function of side of a square, plotting of multiples of different numbers, simple interest vs number of years etc.) 

Reading off from the graphs 

 Reading of linear graphs 

 Reading of distance vs time graph 