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Study 12th STANDARD - Geography


A. Fundamentals of Human Geography

Unit 1: Human Geography: Nature and Scope


Unit 2: People Periods 15

.. Population — distribution, density and growth

.. Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change;

.. Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;

.. Human development - concept; selected indicators, international comparisons

Unit 3: Human Activities

.. Primary activities - concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agricultural and allied activities – some examples from selected countries.

.. Secondary activities-concept; manufacturing: types – household, small scale, large scale; agro based and mineral based industries; people engaged in secondary activities – some examples from selected countries.

.. Tertiary activities-concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities - some examples from selected countries

.. Quaternary activities-concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities - some examples from selected countries

Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade

.. Land transport - roads, railways; trans-continental railways.

.. Water transport- inland waterways; major ocean routes.

.. Air transport- Intercontinental air routes.

.. Oil and gas pipelines.

.. Satellite communication and cyber space.

.. International trade-Bases and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in International trade.

Unit 5: Human Settlements Periods 8

.. Settlement types - rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.

Unit 6: Map Work on identification of features based on above units on

the outline Political map of World.

Part B. India: People and Economy 70 Periods

Unit 7: People

.. Population : distribution, density and growth; composition of population - linguistic, religious; sex, rural-urban and occupational– polulation change through time and regional variations;

.. Migration: international, national-causes and consequences;

.. Human development: selected indicators and regional patterns;

.. Population, environment and development.



Unit 8: Human Settlements

.. Rural settlements - types and distribution;

.. Urban settlements - types, distribution and functional classification.

Unit 9: Resources and Development

.. Land resources- general land use; agricultural land use, Geographical conditions and

distribution of major crops (Wheat, Rice, Tea, Coffee, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane and

Rubber), agricultural development and problems.

.. Water resources-availability and utilization-irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses; scarcity of water and conservation methods-rain water harvesting and watershed

management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be

introduced ).

.. Mineral and energy resources- distribution of metallic (Ironore , Copper, Bauxite,

Manganese ) ; non-metallic (Mica, Salt) minerals; conventional (Coal, Petroleum, Natural

gas and Hydro electricity) and non-conventional energy sources (solar, wind, biogas) and

conservation .

.. Industries - types, factors of industrial location; distribution and changing pattern of selected

industries-iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals, and knowledge based

industries ; impact of liberalization, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location;

industrial clusters.

.. Planning in India- target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study)

Unit 10: Transport, Communication and International Trade

.. Transport and communication-roads, railways, waterways and airways: oil and gas

pipelines ; national electric grids; communication networkings - radio, television, satellite and internet.

.. International trade- changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports

Unit 11: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One

case study to be introduced for each topic) Periods 10

.. Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal.

.. Urbanisation , rural-urban migration; problems of slums.

.. Land Degradation.

Unit 12: Map work on locating and labelling of features based on above

units on outline political map of India 3 Marks


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