STUDY - Reproduction
Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for
continuation of species; Modes of reproduction-A sexual and sexual reproduction; Modes-
Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in
Sexual reproduction in flowering plant:
Flower structure; Development of male and female
gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreedings devices; Pollen-
Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events-Development of endosperm
and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis,
parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of
testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle;
Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and
placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary
STUDY - Genetics and Evolution
Heredity and variation:
Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete
dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy;
Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance;
Chromosome theory of inheritance;
Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and
crossing over; Sex linked inheritance - Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorder
in humans - Thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's
and Klinefelter's syndromes.
Molecular Basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma;
Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation - Lac Operon;
Genome and human ganeome project; DNA finger printing.
Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution
(Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin's
contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution - Variation
(Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural
selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; Adaptive Radiation;
STUDY - Biology and Human Welfare
Health and Disease: Pathogens;
parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis,
Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts
of immunology - vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDs; Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse.
Improvement in food production : Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,
Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage
treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
STUDY - Biotechnology and Its Applications
Principles and process of Biotechnology:
Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine
production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals;
Biosafety issues- Biopiracy and patents.
STUDY - Ecology and Environment
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations;
Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributesgrowth,
birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids
of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation:
Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity;
Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots,
endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control;
Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management;
Radioactive waste management;
Greenhouse effect and global warning;
Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.
12th Standard Subjects