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Study 12th STANDARD - Agriculture

Unit 1: Crop Production

Introduction


(a) Targets and achievement in foodgrain production in India since independence and its future projections, sustainable crop production, commercialisation of agriculture and its scope in India.
(b) Classification of field crops based on their utility-cereals, pulses, oils seeds, fibre, sugar and forage crops.

Soil, Soil fertility, Fertilizers and Manures
(a) Soil, soil pH, Soil texture, soil structure, soil organisms, soil tilth, soil fertility and soil health.
(b) Essential plant nutrients, their functions and deficiency symptoms.
(c) Soil types of India and their characteristics.
(d) Organic nature, common fertilizers including straight, complex, fertilizer mixtures and biofertilizers; integrated nutrient management system.
Irrigation and Drainage 24 Pds.
(a) Sources of irrigation (rain, canals, tanks, rivers, wells, tubewells).
(b) Scheduling of imagination based on critical stages of growth, time interval, soil moisture content and weather parameters.
(c) Water requirement of crops.
(d) Methods of irrigation and drainage.
(e) Watershed management

Weed Control
Principles of weed control, methods of weed control (cultural, mechanical, chemical, biological and Integrated weed management).
Crops 32 Pds.
Seed bed preparation, seed treatment, time and method of sowing/planting, seed rate; dose method and time of fertilizer application, irrigation, interculture and weed control; common pests and diseases, caused by bacteria, fungi virus and nematod, integrated pest management, harvesting, threshing, post harvest technology: storage, processing and marketing of major field crops-Rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, pearlmillet, groundnut, mustard, pigeonpea, gram, sugarcane, cotton berseem.






Horticulture


(a) Importance of fruits and vegetables in human diet, Crop diversification & processing Industry.
(b) Orchard-location and layout, ornamental gardening and kitchen garden.
(c) Planting system, training, pruning, intercroping, protection from frost and sunburn.
(d) Trees, shrubs, climbers, annuals, perennials-definition and examples. Propagation by seed, cutting, budding, layering and grafting.
(e) Cultivation practices, processing and marketing of:
(i) Fruits - mango, papaya, banana, guava, citrus, grapes.
(ii) Vegetables - Radish, carrot, potato, onion, cauliflower, brinjal, tomato, spinach and cabbage.
(iii) Flowers - Gladiolus, canna, chrysanthemums, roses and marigold.
(f) Principles and methods of fruit and vegetable preservation.
(g) Preparation of jellies, jams, ketchup, chips and their packing.











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