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Study 11th STANDARD - Psychology

Foundations of Psychology (90 Periods)

Unit I: Introduction to Psychology
The unit seeks to help understanding and appreciating psychology as a discipline, its applications and relationships with other sciences through appropriate and interesting examples and analysis of everyday experiences. Nature of psychology; Basic concepts: Person, States of Consciousness: Sleep and Wakefulness and altered States of Consciousness, Behaviour and Experience: Similarities and variations in psychological attributes; Evolution of the discipline of psychology; Developments in psychology in India; Psychology and other disciplines; Linkages across psychological processes. Emerging perspectives: evolutionary, cultural and positive psychologies.





Unit II: Methods of Psychology
The objective of this unit is to familiarize with the methods of studying and understanding Qualitative method, psychological questions and issues. Goals of psychological enquiry; Some important methods: Observation, Naturalistic, Experimental; Correlational study; Interview, Case study; Psychological tools: Tests, Questionnaires and gadgets; Qualitative Methods, Quantitative Analysis of data: Concepts and computation of the Measures of Central Tendency: Graphical Presentation of Data: Bar, Histogram, Polygon; Ethical issues in the study of psychological processes.





Unit III: The Bases of Human Behaviour
This unit focuses on the role of biological and socio-cultural factors in the shaping of human behaviour and experience. Evolutionary perspective on human behaviour; Biological and cultural roots; Nervous system and endocrine system: Structure and relationship of with behaviour and experience; Brain and behaviour, Role of Neurotransmitters in behaviour. Sleep and weakfulness. Genetic bases of behaviour; Culture and human behaviour: Socialization, Enculturation and Acculturation; Globalization; Diversity and pluralism in the Indian context.





Unit IV: Human Development
This unit deals with variations in development and the developmental tasks across the life span. Meaning of development; Factors influencing development; Contexts of development; Overview of developmental stages: Prenatal development, Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence (particularly issues of identity, health, social participation and moral development), Adulthood and Old age.





Unit V: Sensory and Perceptual Processes
This unit aims at understanding how various sensory stimuli are received, attended to and given meaning. Knowing the world; Nature of stimuli; Nature and functioning of sense modalities; Sensory Adaptation; Attention : Nature and determinants; Selective and sustained attention; Principles of perceptual organization; Role of perceiver , characteristics in perception; Pattern recognition; Perceptual phenomena : After images; Space Perception, Perceptual constancy, Illusions, Person perception; Socio-cultural influences on perception.





Unit VI : Learning
This unit focuses on how human beings acquire new behaviour and how changes in behaviour take place. Nature of learning and learning curve: Paradigms of learnings: Classical and Operant Conditioning, Observational Learning, Cognitive learning, Verbal learning, Concept learning, skill-learning; Factors facilitating learning; Transfer of learning: Types and Applications, Learning styles: Learning disabilities; Some Applications of learning principles.





Unit VII : Human Memory
This unit deals with how information is received, stored, retrieved and lost. It will also discuss how memory can be improved. Nature of memory; Information Processing Approach; Levels of processing; Memory systems - Sensory memory, Short-term memory, Long -term memory; Knowledge representation and organisation in memory; Memory as a constructive process; memory and emotions; prospective memory; Nature and causes of forgetting; Enhancing memory; Brain and memory.





Unit VIII : Language and Thought
This unit deals with thinking and related processes like reasoning, problem-solving, decision making and creative thinking and relationship between thought and language. Building blocks of thinking: Thought and language: Nature and interrrelationship; Stages of cognitive development: Introduction to the ideas of Piaget and Vygotsky, Development of language and language use; Reasoning: Problem-solving; Decision making; Creative thinking: Nature, process and development.





Unit IX: Motivation and Emotion
This unit focuses on why human beings behave as they do. It also deals with how people experience positive and negative events and respond to them. Human existence and nature of motivation; Biological needs; Social and psychological motives: Achievement, Affiliation and Power, Maslow's hierarchy of needs; Emerging concepts: Competence, Self efficacy and Intrinsic Motivation; Nature of emotions; Physiological, cognitive and cultural bases of emotions; Expression of emotions; Positive emotions: Happiness, Optimism, Empathy and Gratitude; Development of positive emotions; Managing negative emotions such as anger and fear.



11th Standard Subjects


Accountancy sociology Agriculture
Biology Biotechnology Business-Studies
Chemistry Computer-Science Economics
Engineering-Graphics English Entrepreneurship
Geography History Home-Science
Informatic-Practices Mathematics Multimedia-and-web-technology
Philosophy Physics Political-Science
Psychology



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