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# Study 11th STANDARD - Physics

Unit I: Physical World and Measurement
Physics - scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.
Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics
Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Elementary concepts of differentiation and intergration for describing motion.Uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocitytime, position-time graphs.
Relation for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vertors, general vectors and notation; equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Scalar and Vector product of vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform accelerationprojectile motion. Uniform circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion
Intuitive Concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle; elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson's ratio; elastic energy.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state - latent heat capacity. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation green house effect, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling, Wein's displacement Law, Stefan's law.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.

Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.

Unit X: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion - period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring–restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum– derivation of expression for its time period; free and forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect. Practicals
Note: Every student will perform 15 experiments (8 from Section A and 7 from Section B).The activities mentioned are for the purpose of demonstration by the teachers only. These are not to be evaluated during the academic year. For evaluation in examination, students would be required to perform two experiments - One from each Section.

## 11th Standard Subjects

 Accountancy sociology Agriculture Biology Biotechnology Business-Studies Chemistry Computer-Science Economics Engineering-Graphics English Entrepreneurship Geography History Home-Science Informatic-Practices Mathematics Multimedia-and-web-technology Philosophy Physics Political-Science Psychology