**Unit 1 :
Methods of Natural and Social Sciences **
Value of Science. Nature and aim of Scientific Methods: Difference between Scientific induction, and Induction by simple enumeration. Difference between methods of Natural Sciences and Social Sciences.

**Unit 2 : Observation and Experiment 20 Pds.**
Their Differences; fallacies of observation.

**Unit 3 :
Science and Hypothesis **
The place of hypothesis in scientific method. Formulation of relevant hypothesis. Formal conditions of valid hypothesis. Hypothesis and crucial experiments.

**Unit 4 :
Mill’s methods of Experimental Inquiry **
The method of agreement;

The method of difference;

The joint method of agreement and difference;

The method of concomitant variation;

The method of residue

**Unit 5 :
Nyaya Theory of Knowledge **
General Survey – Prama, Pramana, Pramanya, Pratyaksa, Anumana, Upamana, Sabda LOGIC

**Unit 6:
The nature and scope of logic **
What is Logic? Use and application of Logic. Difference between Truth and Validity

**Unit 7 :
Terms and Propositions **
Definition of Term; Denotation and Connotation of Terms. Definition of Proposition and traditional classification of Propositions. Distribution of Terms. Relation between Propositions 12 Pds. Traditional Square of Propositions

**Unit 8:
Categorical Syllogism **
Its definition: Rules of valid syllogism and Fallacies.

**Unit 9 :
Elements of Symbolic Logic **
Value of using symbols in Logic Basic Truth-tables.

**Unit 10 : Buddhist Formal Logic : Theory of Anuman 26 Pds.**

## 11th Standard Subjects