Evolution of computers; Basics of computer and its operation: Functional Components and their interconnections, concept of Booting. Software Concepts: Types of Software - System Software, Utility Software and Application Software; System Software: Operating System, Compiler, Interpreter and Assembler; Operating System: Need for operating system, Functions of Operating System (Processor Management, Memory Management, File Management and Device Management), Types of operating system - Interactive (GUI based), Real Time and Distributed; Commonly used operating systems: UNIX, LINUX, Windows, Solaris, BOSS (Bharat Operating System Solutions); Mobile OS - Android, Symbian. Illustration and practice of the following tasks using any one of the above Operating Systems: • Opening/Closing Windows
• Creating/Moving/Deleting Files/Folders
• Renaming Files/Folders
• Switching between Tasks
Utility Software: Anti Virus, File Management tools, Compression tools and Disk Management tools (Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, Backup)
Application software: Office Tools - Word Processor, Presentation Tool, Spreadsheet Package, Database Management System; Domain specific tools - School Management System, Inventory Management System, Payroll System, Financial Accounting, Hotel Management, Reservation System and Weather Forecasting System
Number System: Binary, Octal, Decimal, Hexadecimal and conversion between two different number systems Internal Storage encoding of Characters: ASCII, ISCII (Indian scripts Standard Code for Information Interchange), and UNICODE (for multilingual computing)
Microprocessor: Basic concepts, Clock speed (MHz, GHz), 16 bit, 32 bit, 64 bit processors; Types - CISC, RISC
Memory Concepts: Units: Byte, Kilo Byte, Mega Byte, Giga Byte, Tera Byte, Peta Byte
Primary Memory: Cache, RAM, ROM
Secondary Memory: Fixed and Removable Storage - Hard Disk Drive, CD/DVD Drive, Pen Drive, Blue Ray Disk
Input Output Ports/Connections: Serial, Parallel and Universal Serial Bus, PS-2 port, Infrared port, Bluetooth, Firewire.
Note : Exploring inside computer system in the computer lab class.
INTRODUCTION TO C++
Getting Started : C++ character set, C++ Tokens (Identifiers, Keywords, Constants, Operators), Structure of a C++ Program (include files, main function), Header files - iostream.h, iomanip.h, cout, cin; Use of I/O operators (<< and >>), Use of endland setw (), Cascading of I/O operators, Error Messages; Use of editor, basic commands of editor, compilation, linking and execution. Data Types, Variables and Constants: Concept of Data types; Built-in Data types: char, int, float and double; Constants: Integer Constants, Character constants - \n, \t, \b), Floating Point Constants, String Constants; Access modifier: const; Variables of built-in data types, Declaration/Initialisation of variables, Assignment statement; Type modifier: signed, unsigned, long Operator and Expressions : Operators: Arithmetic operators (-,+,*,/,%), Unary operator (-), Increment (++) and Decrement (--) Operators, Relation operator (>,>=,<,<=,= =,!=), Logical operators (!, &&,||), Conditional operator; Precedence of Operators; Automatic type conversion in expressions, Type casting; C++ shorthands (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=)
General Concepts; Modular approach; Clarity and Simplicity of Expressions, Use of proper Names for identifiers, Comments, Indentation; Documentation and Program Maintenance; Running and Debugging programs, Syntax Errors, Run-Time Errors, Logical Errors Problem Solving Methodologies: Understanding of the problem, Identifying minimum number of inputs required for output, Writing code to optimizing execution time and memory storage, step by step solution for the problem, breaking down solution into simple steps, Identification of arithmetic and logical operations required for solution, Control Structure: Conditional control and looping (finite and infinite)
PROGRAMMING IN C++
Flow of control:
Conditional statements: if-else, Nested if, switch..case..default, Nested switch..case, break statement (to be used in switch..case only); Loops: while, do - while , for and Nested loops Inbuilt Functions Header file Categorization Header Function File Standard input/output functions stdio.h gets (), puts () Character Functions ctype.h isalnum (), isalpha (), isdigit (), islower (), isupper (), tolower (), toupper () String Functions string.h strcpy (), strcat (), strlen (), strcmp (), strcmpi (), strrev (), strlen (), strupr (), strlwr () Mathematical Functions math.h fabs (), pow (), sgrt (), sin (), cos (), abs () Other Functions stdlib.h randomize (), random (), itoa (), atoi ()
User Defined Functions:
Defining a function; function prototype, Invoking/calling a function, passing arguments to function, specifying argument data types, default argument, constant argument, call by value, call by reference, returning values from a function, calling functions with arrays, scope rules of functions and variables local and global variables. Relating the Parameters and return type concepts in built-in functions.
Structured Data Type:
Arrays: Introductory to Array and its advantages.
One Dimensional Array : Declaration/initialisation of One-dimensional array, Inputting array elements, Accessing array elements, Manipulation of Array elements (sum of elements, product of elements, average of elements, linear search, finding maximum/minimum value) Declaration/Initialization of a String, string manipulations (counting vowels/ consonants/digits/special characters, case conversion, reversing a string, reversing each word of a string)
Declaration/initialisation of a two-dimensional array, inputting array elements Accessing array elements, Manipulation of Array elements (sum of row element, column elements, diagonal elements, finding
User-defined Data Types:
User defined data type
Defining a Structure (Keyword Structure), Declaring structure variables, Accessing structure elements, Passing structure to Functions as value and reference argument/parameter, Function returning structure, Array of structures, passing an array of structure as an argument/ a parameter to a function Defining a symbole name using typedef keyword and defining a macro using #define directive.
11th Standard Subjects