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Study 11th STANDARD - Biology

Unit I: Diversity of Living Organism
What is living? Biodiversity;Need for classification; Three domain of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy-Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five kingdom classification; Salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguising features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms - classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.
Salient features and classification of animals-non chordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and atleast two examples).





Unit II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants
Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence-cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different system (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (a brief account only)





Unit III: Cell Structure and Function
Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles - structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleous.
Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipid, nucleic acids, Enzymes-types, properties, enzymes action. Cell division : Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.





Unit IV: Plant Physiology
Transport in plants; Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant-water relations-Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water-Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Where does photosynthesis take place, How many pigments are involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.

Respiration: Exchange of gases; Cellular respiration - glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratroy quotient.

Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation: Photoperiodism.





Unit V: Human Physiology

Digestion and absorption: Alimentary canal and digestive glands, Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Calorific value of proteins, carbohydrates and fat (for box item not to be evaluated); Egeston; Nutritional and digestive disorders-PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.

Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, Respiratory volume. Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupatonal respiratory disorders.

Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.

Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion - Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, A trial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders-Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement - ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle-contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system - Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.

Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans-central nervous system & peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sensory perception; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exphthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addision's disease).
Imp: Diseases releated to all the human physiology systems to be taught in brief.





11th Standard Subjects


Accountancy sociology Agriculture
Biology Biotechnology Business-Studies
Chemistry Computer-Science Economics
Engineering-Graphics English Entrepreneurship
Geography History Home-Science
Informatic-Practices Mathematics Multimedia-and-web-technology
Philosophy Physics Political-Science
Psychology



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